STINGLESS BEES THESIS

The data were checked for normal distribution using Kologovic-Smiroff KS test. Scree plot for finding the various components to be extracted during Principal Component Analysis among stingless bee workers. The first author would wish to thank beloved Manager Rev. Prem Jose Vazhacharickal Author. Even though numerical significance were observed in HL, PL and MdW but not able to prove their significance statistically. The bees found to construct the brood cell as cell cup base, half constructed and nearly constructed cell per day at the rate of

Firstly we thank God Almighty whose blessing were always with us and helped us to complete this research work successfully. Distribution of factor scores among stingless bee drones across various locations in Kerala. Table of contents Table of figures Table of tables List of abbreviations Morphometric characterization of stingless bees Trigona iridipennis Smith in Kerala: Biology – Micro- and Molecular Biology Studies on genetic relationships amon Our studies revealed that most of the worker morhopometric characters were positively correlated across all the districts in Kerala. The first three PCs explained A comparison size metrics among the samples collected from different locations was conducted by means of Principal Component Analysis PCA.

The cropping pattern of thesid collected sites vary with a wide variety plantation stinglews were natural rubber dominates all the other crops Figure 2. Kerala state covers an area of 38, km2 with a population density of per km2 and spread across 14 districts Figure 2. We therefore conducted morphometric studies among workers and drones across 14 districts in Kerala with a view to characterize them. The samples were labelled according to the location and stored in airtight boxes until morphometric analysis were conducted.

The thermoregulation studies during April-May revealed that T.

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stingless bees thesis

Site description of the selected farms W1-W21 across Kerala, India for collecting worker bees during The studies showed good possibilities of using artificial storage cups in stingless bees colonies which in turn will improve the harvesting process of its honey.

The bees found to construct the brood cell as cell cup base, half constructed and stjngless constructed cell per day at the rate of George Njarakunnel, respected Principal Dr.

Agrarian Studies Soil properties and enzymatic charact Majority of cups were removed by bees, however the bees accepted 2 installed cups of 5mm dia propolis cup sealed on 5th day after installation and 8mm dia propolis cups sealed on 13th day after installation.

A PCA was performed using a correlation matrix was performed on selected 16 characters which seems to be significant in the study. The components were decided using scree plot and fixed to 5 and 4 components in thsis and drones respectively.

Novel aspects of nest defence in stingless bees : Sussex Research Online

Scree plot for finding the various components to be extracted during Principal Component Analysis among stingless bee workers in Kerala. The lowest AL was seen in Kasargod 1.

A wide range of variations especially worker and drone body size and measurement were reported Pignata et al. Person correlation analysis showed considerable correlation among various morphometric characters in worker and drone bees across Kerala. Library Cataloguing Date Deposited: In the case of the drone bees, highly significant differences were seen only for AL and ML Figure 2 and 3. Despite of role in stinyless and ecosystem services, honey bee population is drastically decreasing due to tnesis of natural habitat, intensive agriculture, diseases and climate change et al.

Prem Jose Vazhacharickal Author. Even though numerical significance were observed in HL, PL and MdW but not able to prove their significance statistically.

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stingless bees thesis

Firstly we thank God Almighty whose blessing were always with us and helped us to complete this research work successfully. Morphometric and geometric analysis provide a valuable tool for the discriminating variations among various honey bees and stingless bees Vijayakumar and Jayraj, ; Wappler et al.

In a hived colony, about superfluous queen cells were observed.

Morphometric characterization of stingless bees (Trigona iridipennis Smith) in Kerala

Morphometric characterization of stingless bees Trigona iridipennis Smith in Kerala: ANNOVA of morphometric characters among workers and drones across various districts in Kerala showed difference in statistical significance among the two castes. The first three PCs explained Conclusions Acknowledgements References Table of figures Figure 1. Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: My thesis explores this central theme in behavioural ecology using stingless bees as study organisms.

However, there is not much significant differences among drones across various districts. Pantnagar, Uttarakhand, India, on the characterization and behaviour of stingless bee, Tetragonula iridipennis Smith along with biochemical properties of its honey.

Novel aspects of nest defence in stingless bees

Comparative study of foraging activity in one queenright and one queenless colony of T. Non-destructive methods were followed using sample collection process. Biology – Micro- and Molecular Biology Isolation and molecular characterizat Shackleton, Kyle Novel aspects of nest defence in stingless bees.

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